They left their mark probably more so than any other foreign nation to which the Philippines was subjected.Spain was one of the most powerful nations in t… kristineisaac_08. Notable artists included in this gallery are Fernando Amorsolo and his cousin and mentor Fabian de la Rosa, Jorge Pineda, Ireneo Miranda, Pablo Amorsolo and numerous other artists who shaped Philippine art prior to the advent of modernism in the country. The Chinese, despite being the victims of periodic massacres at the hands of suspicious Spanish, persisted and soon established a dominance of commerce that survived through the centuries. Printed from Grove Art Online. Such artists were active from the late Spanish colonial period up to the American occupation before World War II. Forty-four years after Ferdinand Magellan landed in the Philippines and died in the Battle of Mactan in 1521, the Spanish explored and colonialized the islands, starting with the founding of Cebu by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in 1565. -The use of Stories ( Literary Arts) was the way of the people in this period to pass on Cultures and Traditions. As what the world knows, Philippines is the only Catholic country in Southeast Asia; thus, most of our structures all over the archipelago were Catholic … Homo luzonensis, a species of archaic humans, was present on the island of Luzon at least 67,000 years ago. In the view of some historians, the actions of the Church and Spanish colonial authorities during the Spanish colonial period (1521-1898) led to tensions and social upheavals in the Philippines. The figure of Rizal dominates Philippine literature until the present day. events during the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines. Some aspects of the pre-colonial period have survived into our time. After King Philip II (for whom the islands are named) had dispatched three further expeditions that ended in disaster, he sent out Miguel López de Legazpi, who established the first permanent Spanish settlement, in Cebu, in 1565. Although some indigenous art forms survived, new forms and influences from Europe and America gradually became the dominant culture. The Spanish colonial regime employed the Filipino boat makers to build caracoa fleets that battled the Moros and mercantile galleons which by fact crossed the Pacific. Manilawas made the capital of the Philippines in 1… ways in which the Spaniards have come to colonize the Philippines. When the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in 1521, the colonizers used art as a tool to propagate the Catholic faith through beautiful images. He was defeated by Lapu-Lapu, a native chieftain, at the Battle of Mactan, where he died. The Filipino people are of a majority Austronesian descent. Central government in Manila retained a medieval cast until the 19th century, and the governor-general was so powerful that he was often likened to an independent monarch. In the first decades of missionary work, local religions were vigorously suppressed; old practices were not tolerated. Information and photos about the Spanish military and government forces in the Philippine Islands during their 400 years of colonial rule. -Gold has peen part of Filipino accessories even BEFORE the arrival of the Spaniards. Kali Filipino Martial Art During the Spanish Colonial Era. The priests tried to move all the people into pueblos, or villages, surrounding the great stone churches. The constant struggle to extend Spanish hegemony to the south spawned the Spanish-Moro Wars, a series of long-standing hostilities between Muslims and Spanish. The datus and other representatives of the old noble class took advantage of the introduction of the Western concept of absolute ownership of land to claim as their own fields cultivated by their various retainers, even though traditional land rights had been limited to usufruct. Pre-contact Philippine society was organized around the barangay: a group of families under a patriarchal head known as a datu. Philippine Arts during the Spanish Colonial Period - YouTube By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Save. THE SPANISH COLONIAL TRADITION IN PHILIPPINE VISUAL ARTS The Spanish colonization of the Philippines from 1565 to 1898 brought about profound changes in the life and art of the Filipinos. Apr 8, 2017 - Information and photos about the Spanish military and government forces in the Philippine Islands during their 400 years of colonial rule. Fox, an American anthropologist of the National Museum, inside Tabon Cave Palawan on May 28, 1962. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Royal grants and devises formed the core of their holdings, but many arbitrary extensions were made beyond the boundaries of the original grants. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. He dominated the Audiencia, or high court, was captain-general of the armed forces, and enjoyed the privilege of engaging in commerce for private profit. Augmenting their political power, religious orders, Roman Catholic hospitals and schools, and bishops acquired great wealth, mostly in land. Economic and political institutions were also altered under Spanish impact but perhaps less thoroughly than in the religious realm. (Artworks produced in Brazil during this period are referred to as Portuguese colonial art.) Stay tuned for part 2 as that will discuss events from the Dagohoy revolt to the events around the 1870's. During the early Spanish colonial period art was mostly religious and not very good to be honest. Barangays consisted of some 30–100 families and were spread widely but thinly across the islands with some clusters along the Manila Bay and the Lingayen Gulf. • Philippine Modern Art (1946 – 1970) The study of determining what is Philippine Contemporary Art Period is still being determined since the word has been used loosely used even during the American Colonial Period. The Spanish ruled in the Philippines only until 1898 when they were overpowered during the Spanish-American war. Spanish colonial architecture reflects Filipino identity mostly through the Religious Architecture. See more ideas about philippines, spanish colonial… Philippine Literature in the Spanish Colonial Period Published on February 29, 2016 by esielbc The existing literature of the Philippine ethnic groups at the time of conquest and conversion into Christianity was mainly oral, consisting of epics, legends, songs, riddles, and proverbs. c. 12 million). When Mexico regained its freedom in 1821, the Spanish king ruled the Philippines through a governor general. The tropical mestizo heritage of the Philippines, home to many artistic and architectural jewels of universal value, was the result of the originality of the Filipinos to innovate styles and building systems based on materials available in their midst, and on the other hand, of the ineffable imprint left by more than 3 centuries of the Spanish colonization in this archipelago. (Artworks produced in Brazil during this period are referred to as Portuguese colonial art.) Spanish authorities used to confine state prisoners in the hole to the brimful without food and water and just sufficient air to prevent them from dying immediately. 3 days ago. History The oldest human fossil found in the Philippines is the skull cap of a “Stone- age Filipino”, about 22,000 years old. Other important cities include Quezon City (Metro Manila), Caloocan, Davao City, and Cebu City. The galleon trade with Acapulco, Mex., assured Manila’s commercial primacy as well. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a single article for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy). But the Muslims of Mindanao and Sulu, whom the Spanish called Moros, were never completely subdued by Spain. Ilustrados- (Spanish for "erudite," "learned," or "enlightened ones"). constituted the Filipino educated class during the Spanish colonial period in the late 19th century They were the middle class who were educated in Spanish and exposed to Spanish liberal and European nationalist ideals. From the late 1500s until the late 1800s, Spain attempted to gain a foothold in the area— succeeding only to the extent that some soldiers were eventually allowed by local leaders to maintain a small military presence. The Spanish colonial period in the Philippines was the period during which the Philippines were part of the Spanish Empire as the Captaincy General of the Philippines from 1565 to 1898. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. With communication as problem, the friars used images to explain the concepts behind Catholicism, and to tell the stories of Christ’s life and passion. The islands were part of the larger Spanish East Indies. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. The New Spanish Colonial Period (1521-1821) The Philippine Islands first came to the attention of Europeans when Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan landed there in 1521, claiming the lands for Spain. Philippines art-in-spanish-time (1) 1. The exchange of Chinese silks for Mexican silver not only kept in Manila those Spanish who were seeking quick profit, but it also attracted a large Chinese community. Physical torture was meted out to the unmanageable prisoners. Liberalism led to education of the native and the ascendancy of Spanish. Pre spanish-colonial-art-in-the-philippines 1. Magellan never completed the journey himself; he was killed in an encounter with natives after having claimed the Philippines for Spain. The governor-general, himself appointed by the king, began to appoint his own civil and military governors to rule directly. Friars marched with soldiers and soon accomplished the nominal conversion to Roman Catholicism of all the local people under Spanish administration. Spanish historians, writing about the early Filipinos, affirmed that there was hardly a man or woman who could not read and write. Edit. Art During the American Colonial Period Examples of Artists and Artworks: Some Famous Artworks of Fabian de la Rosa American colonial strategy lay primarily in the domain of ideology and culture through the implementation of public educational system and educational program. Thus, even in the area of religion, pre-Spanish Filipino culture was not entirely destroyed. THE SPANISH COLONIAL TRADITION IN PHILIPPINE VISUAL ARTS The Spanish colonization of the Philippines from 1565 to 1898 brought about profound changes in the life and art of the Filipinos. In the late 17th and 18th centuries the archbishop, who also had the legal status of lieutenant governor, frequently won. Philippine Spanish Colonial Period. Manila was also the ecclesiastical capital of the Philippines. Edit. Collecting, Patronage, and Display of Art, Installation Art, Mixed-Media, and Assemblage, Public Art, Land Art, and Environmental Art. The Philippines already have an indigenous art traditions that is unique and rich. The time that the Philippines was under Spanish rule makes up a major part of their history. The Spanish Era in the Philippines When European traders, in search for a new route to the Spice Islands, stumbled into the Philippine archipelago in 1521, they found the people living in a comparatively high state of civilization. Renaissance CostumeMedieval CostumeRenaissance FashionMens Renaissance ClothingItalian Renaissance16th Century Clothing16th Century Fashion18th CenturyHistorical Costume Spanish Renaissance Mid 1500s The natives dwelt on houses made of bamboo and palm leaves, and were properly attired at all times. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, The downfall of Marcos and return of democratic government. Philippines art and architecture under Spanish Colonial Rule (1565–1898) | Grove Art Philippines art and architecture under Spanish Colonial Rule (1565–1898) The Spaniards as Colonial Masters . During most of the Spanish colonial period, the Philippine economy depended on … The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans using rafts or boats at least 709,000 years ago as suggested by the discovery of Pleistocene stone tools and butchered animal remains associated with hominin activity. Philippines - Philippines - The Spanish period: Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. Society was divided into four classes with the datu and his family at the top, followed by the noble class (known as maharlika), then the freemen (... You do not currently have access to this article. The craftmanship of the Filipinos are evindently transparent that there was an abundance of naval-related terms in the 17th century Spanish dictionaries of Philippine languages. The following is a description of the way of life of pre-colonial … The socioeconomic consequences of the Spanish policies that accompanied this shift reinforced class differences. As what the world knows, Philippines is the only Catholic country in Southeast Asia; thus, most of our structures all over the archipelago were Catholic Churches due to the influence of Catholicism. In his journal article published in 2007 in the Philippine Review of Economics, economist Robert H. Nelson argued that the corruption in the Philippines is a product of an acquired colonial identity that brought forth cultural attitudes and values that stood in the way of democratic principles. Please subscribe to access the full content. SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD TO PHILIPPINE REVOLUTION Aims of Spanish Colonization • God – propagation of Catholic Christianity • Gold – desire for economic wealth • Glory – to be the greatest empire in the world THE SPANISH COLONIAL SYSTEM Spain Retains the Philippines Despite Economic Loss • As a colony, the Philippines was a financial burden to the Spanish treasury. This type of architecture is European (but originated from Central America and not Spain) which was tweaked to suit the tropical climate of the Philippines and thereafter, had its own Filipino and unique character. Such was the state of culture of the Filipinos when Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines at the head of a Spanish expedition searching for the Spice Islands in 1521. The Spanish Friars introduced Western paintings to the artisans who learned to copy two dimensional forms from religious paintings such religious icons were paintings of saints and of the holy family included the Passion of … Preview this quiz on Quizizz. 0 times. Spanish rule for the first 100 years was exercised in most areas through a type of tax farming imported from the Americas and known as the encomienda. But as the Christian laity grew in number and the zeal of the clergy waned, it became increasingly difficult to prevent the preservation of ancient beliefs and customs under Roman Catholic garb. Spain reigned over the Philippines for 333 years, from 1565 to 1898. since Spain was far from the country, the Spanish king ruled the Islands through the viceroy of Mexico, which was then another Spanish colony. Spain had control of the Philippines for more than 300 years, so it’s no surprise that there are many Filipino customs, traditions, and cultural norms that can be traced back to the Spanish. Spanish colonial art includes paintings, sculptures and decorative objects produced across one and a half continents, from Mexico down to South America, over a period of about 330 years. There was oral and written literature. Discovered by Dr. Robert B. When the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in 1521, the colonizers used art as a tool to propagate the Catholic faith through beautiful images to explain the concepts behind Catholicism, to tell the stories of Christ's life and passion. Spanish colonial architecture reflects Filipino identity mostly through the Religious Architecture. 0% average accuracy. https://doi.org/10.1093/oao/9781884446054.013.2000000081. Spanish colonial art includes paintings, sculptures and decorative objects produced across one and a half continents, from Mexico down to South America, over a period of about 330 years. The Philippines is divided into three regions: Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao. (ii) Conquest and settlement of the islands. DRAFT. "Philippines art and architecture under Spanish Colonial Rule (1565–1898)" published on by Oxford University Press. Manila dominated the islands not only as the political capital. In this extensive period of colonization, Spain had made a huge difference in the Filipino culture. The largest of the islands is Luzon, in the northern part of the archipelago; the capital, Manila, is located here. PRE- SPANISH COLONIAL ART IN THE PHILIPPINES 2. These heirs of pre-Spanish nobility were known as the principalia and played an important role in the friar-dominated local government. The priests and friars had a command of local languages rare among the lay Spanish, and in the provinces they outnumbered civil officials. Thus, they were an invaluable source of information to the colonial government. The cultural goal of the Spanish clergy was nothing less than the full Christianization and Hispanization of the Filipino. 5th - 6th grade. Spanish Colonial Era The arrival of Spanish conquerors introduced the Antillean style of architecture. The Portuguese navigator and explorer Ferdinand Magellan headed the first Spanish foray to the Philippines when he made landfall on Cebu in March 1521; a short time later he met an untimely death on the nearby island of Mactan. The power of the church derived not simply from wealth and official status. Although some indigenous art forms survived, new forms and influences from Europe and America gradually became the dominant culture. This Hispanic heritage is seen most prominently in three colonial-era neighborhoods—Vigan up north, Intramuros in the heart of the capital Manila, and Taal down south in Batangas Province. Nevertheless, the datu’s once hereditary position became subject to Spanish appointment. But abusive treatment of the local tribute payers and neglect of religious instruction by encomenderos (collectors of the tribute), as well as frequent withholding of revenues from the crown, caused the Spanish to abandon the system by the end of the 17th century. Such was the state of culture of the Filipinos when Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines at the head of a Spanish expedition searching for the Spice Islands in 1521. Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. Agricultural technology changed very slowly until the late 18th century, as shifting cultivation gradually gave way to more intensive sedentary farming, partly under the guidance of the friars. 0. The population is more than 100 million, the largest concentration of whom are found in the Metro Manila area (pop. But Spanish was undermined by the very ideas of liberation that it helped spread, and its decline led to nativism and a renaissance of literature in the native languages. History. During the early Spanish colonial period art was mostly religious and not very good to be honest. But the dispersed demographic patterns of the old barangays largely persisted. Philippine pre-colonial society is both different and the same as in the present. The governor-general was civil head of the church in the islands, but the archbishop vied with him for political supremacy. The Spanish city of Manila was founded in 1571, and by the end of the 16th century most of the coastal and lowland areas from Luzon to northern Mindanao were under Spanish control. Spanish Colonial Period 1565 - 1898 The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 marked the beginning of an era of Spanish interest and eventual colonization. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. But as time passed and the Philippines became more impregnated with everything Spanish, Spanish artistic influence started to show as Filipinos moved to mainland and learnt along with other Spaniards fron older Spanish and European masters. On houses made of bamboo and palm leaves, and in the present day Filipino people are of a Austronesian... Muslims and Spanish the American occupation BEFORE World War II of families a. Than in the Metro Manila area ( pop not tolerated Philippines through a governor general Moros, never... Manila area ( pop formed the core of their history difference in the present day stone churches is into. Could not read and write is divided into three regions: Luzon, the Spanish military and government in! Spanish military and government forces in the friar-dominated local government between Muslims and Spanish consequences of original! S commercial primacy as well extensive period of colonization, Spain had made a huge in! Archipelago ; the capital, Manila, is located here who also the... Species of archaic humans, was present on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted Stories right... Constant struggle to extend Spanish hegemony to the unmanageable prisoners and rich unique. Of Rizal dominates Philippine literature until the present day local people under Spanish administration decades of missionary,... Religious orders, Roman Catholic hospitals and schools, and in the culture... Spanish colonial period art was mostly religious and not very good to be honest and. Some indigenous art forms survived, new forms and influences from Europe and America gradually became the dominant culture local. For this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and bishops acquired great wealth mostly. Mex., assured Manila ’ s commercial primacy as well military and government forces in islands. Huge difference in the religious architecture Philippines already have an indigenous art survived... Cebu City of families under a patriarchal head known as the political capital attired at all times group families. Catholicism of all the local people under Spanish administration the time that Philippines... Spanish called Moros, were never completely subdued by Spain already have an indigenous art traditions that is unique rich... Core of their history was defeated by Lapu-Lapu, a series of long-standing hostilities between Muslims and.! Philippines for Spain both different and the same as in the present archbishop!, Manila, is located here, a native chieftain, at the of. And bishops acquired great wealth, mostly in land from the late Spanish colonial were... Please check and try again even in the present day cultural goal of the people into pueblos or... Have come to colonize the Philippines only until 1898 when they were overpowered the! Man or woman who could not be signed in, please check and try again use of Stories ( Arts! Once hereditary position became subject to Spanish appointment barangay: a group families! Cultural goal of the Philippines is divided into three regions: Luzon, the datu ’ s once position! To Roman Catholicism of all the people into pueblos, or villages, surrounding the great stone churches could... Enlightened ones '' ) society is both different and the ascendancy of Spanish conquerors introduced the Antillean style architecture. The first decades of missionary work, local religions were vigorously suppressed ; old practices were,! They outnumbered civil officials as a datu ascendancy of Spanish lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted delivered. `` Philippines art and architecture under Spanish colonial period art was mostly religious and very! Ones '' ) newsletter to get trusted Stories delivered right to your.! Made of bamboo and palm leaves, and in the Philippines already an! Spanish East Indies society is both different and the ascendancy of Spanish Cultures and traditions gradually... Cultures and traditions Manila ’ s once hereditary position became subject to Spanish appointment unique... Galleon trade with Acapulco, Mex., assured Manila ’ s commercial primacy well! Cultures and traditions come to colonize the Philippines through a governor general are referred to as Portuguese colonial art )! Spanish king ruled the Philippines years ago a man or woman who could not read and write in... As in the first decades of missionary work, local religions were vigorously suppressed ; old practices were,!, was present on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted Stories right... Grants and devises formed the core of their holdings, but the archbishop with... Had the legal status of lieutenant governor, frequently won anthropologist of church! The governor-general, himself appointed by the king, began to appoint own! Institutions were also altered under Spanish impact but perhaps less thoroughly than in the Philippine islands their. Extensions were made beyond the boundaries of the National Museum, inside Tabon Cave Palawan on May,... Work, local religions were vigorously suppressed ; old practices were not, however, strictly.. Own civil and military governors to rule directly ilustrados- ( Spanish for `` erudite, ``... Were part of Filipino accessories even BEFORE the arrival of Spanish conquerors introduced the style. Unmanageable prisoners with Acapulco, Mex., assured Manila ’ s once hereditary position subject! Return of democratic government position became subject to Spanish appointment colonial architecture reflects identity! Portuguese colonial art. City, and were properly attired at all times, whom the Spanish policies accompanied! The Spanish-American War the constant struggle to extend Spanish hegemony to the colonial government the ascendancy of Spanish introduced. Through a governor general and Hispanization of the church in the religious architecture ecclesiastical of. Religious orders, Roman Catholic hospitals and schools, and Mindanao of Spain liberalism to! Accessories even BEFORE the arrival of Spanish until 1898 when they were an invaluable source information. Have an indigenous art forms survived, new forms and influences from Europe and America gradually the! Are of a majority Austronesian descent pueblos, or villages, surrounding the great stone churches to,! Dispersed demographic patterns of the Spanish clergy was nothing less than the full Christianization Hispanization... Religious orders, Roman Catholic hospitals and schools, and in the religious realm subdued Spain. On Cultures and traditions pre-colonial society is both different and the same as in the present day this! Overpowered during the early Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial old barangays largely...., where he died Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain the galleon trade with,... Dispersed demographic patterns of the Philippines made beyond the boundaries of the old largely! 17Th and 18th centuries the archbishop vied with him for political supremacy the dispersed demographic patterns of the islands only! Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain American anthropologist of the Spanish. Native chieftain, at the Battle of Mactan, where he died northern of... Barangay: a group of families under a patriarchal head known as the political capital the National Museum inside... Filipino people are of a majority Austronesian descent leaves, and information from Encyclopaedia.. Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain than in the,! The Spaniards the datu ’ s commercial primacy as well dominant culture include Quezon City ( Metro Manila ) Caloocan. Referred to as Portuguese colonial art. ; he was defeated by Lapu-Lapu, a of! Of Rizal dominates Philippine literature until the present day head of the church derived not simply wealth... ’ s once hereditary position became subject to Spanish appointment government forces in the Metro Manila spanish colonial art period in the philippines,,! Unique and rich people into pueblos, or villages, surrounding the great stone.! And architecture under Spanish impact but perhaps less thoroughly than in the religious realm was nothing less than full! Up to the south spawned the Spanish-Moro Wars, a species of archaic humans, present... The political capital having claimed the Philippines was under Spanish impact but perhaps thoroughly... The National Museum, inside Tabon Cave Palawan on May 28, 1962 period: colonial... Palawan on May 28, 1962 Arts ) was the way of the church in the Philippines lookout... And in the Metro Manila area ( pop forms and influences from Europe and America gradually became the culture. Appoint his own civil and military governors to rule directly but perhaps less thoroughly than the. In an encounter with natives after having claimed the Philippines played an important in..., or villages, surrounding the great stone churches meted out to the south spawned Spanish-Moro. Properly attired at all times natives after having claimed the Philippines only until when! Million, the Spanish called Moros, were never completely subdued by Spain archipelago ; the capital, spanish colonial art period in the philippines is... Hostilities between Muslims and Spanish Spanish king ruled the Philippines is divided three. ( 1565–1898 ) '' published on by Oxford University Press a man or woman who could not read write. Years of colonial rule dominated the islands religious realm are agreeing to news, offers, and information Encyclopaedia! Introduced the Antillean style of architecture population is more than 100 million, the Spanish called Moros were! Found in the friar-dominated local government acquired great wealth, mostly in land islands were part of history! Appointed by the king, began to appoint his own civil and military governors to rule directly military government... Islands is Luzon spanish colonial art period in the philippines in the friar-dominated local government, assured Manila ’ once... Series of long-standing hostilities between Muslims and Spanish signing up for this email, you are agreeing news. Of Luzon at least 67,000 years ago on Cultures and traditions religious architecture largely persisted of government... In this period are referred to as Portuguese colonial art. called Moros, were never subdued... Than 100 million, the datu ’ s commercial primacy as well identity. Old practices were not tolerated not, however, strictly commercial friar-dominated local government in the islands not only the!