To how many others of more desert gave he abundant flowers from whence to gather honey, and in the end of harvest burnt them in the hive! [12] Though the English failed to take advantage of the Praguerie itself, the prospect of gaining the allegiance of one of Charles VII's more rebellious nobles was attractive from a military perspective. He was eventually captured (July 1465) near Clitheroe in Lancashire and imprisoned in the Tower of London. It was shortly after his crowning ceremony at Merton Priory on All Saints' Day, 1 November 1437,[8] shortly before his 16th birthday, that he obtained some measure of independent authority. In 1485, his body was moved to St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. Apparently printed from quarto 0. However, once the last of the most prominent Lancastrian supporters were either killed or exiled, it became clear that Henry VI would be a burden to Edward IV's reign. 1 Henry VI was probably written in 1592. The common fear was the possibility of another noble using the mentally unstable king to further their own agenda. [29] Other than that, York's months as regent were spent tackling the problem of government overspending. Henry had a period of mental disturbance (July 1453–December 1454), during which York was lord protector, but his hopes of ultimately succeeding Henry were shattered by the birth of Edward, prince of Wales, on October 13, 1453. Henry V had, after the battles of Agincourt and Rouen, been successful in his campaign to reclaim France. In 1590 William Shakespeare wrote a trilogy of plays about the life of Henry VI: Henry VI, Part 1, Henry VI, Part 2, and Henry VI, Part 3. His dead body and his ghost also appear in Richard III. Posts about King Henry VI written by robinofredesdale. [48] A particular devotional act that was closely associated with the cult of Henry VI was the bending of a silver coin as an offering to the "saint" in order that he might perform a miracle. An English chronicle of the reigns of Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI written before the year 1471; with an appendix, containing the 18th and 19th years of Richard II and the Parliament at Bury St. Edmund's, 25th Henry VI and supplementary additions from the Cotton. AbeBooks.com: An English Chronicle Of The Reigns Of Richard Ii, Henry Iv, Henry V, And Henry Vi Written Before The Year 1471... (9781271461912) by Anonymous and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices. Third Quarto, undated but published in 1619. Thomas Morstede had previously been appointed royal surgeon and died in 1450. Meanwhile, the English hold on France was steadily eroded; despite a truce—as part of which Henry married (April 1445) Margaret of Anjou, a niece of the French queen—Maine and Normandy were lost and by 1453 so were the remaining English-held lands in Guyenne. The title of the play was given as The First Part of the Contention Betwixt the Two Famous Houses of Yorke and Lancaster. First quarto, 1594. Both retell the traditional story that the prince sought sanctuary in Tewkesbury Abbey and was dragged out and butchered in the street. He was born at Windsor Castle on the feast of St. Nicholas, the 6th of December in 1421. They summoned Parliament in the King's name and established a regency council to govern until the King should come of age. The wars finally came to an end when King Henry VII of England came to the throne in 1485 On 22 August 1485, Henry's army defeated Richard III's army at the Battle of Bosworth Field. “A noble prince, right fortunate in all his doings…of such majestie tempered with humanity, as best become so high and noble an estate” (Holinshed, 1577) “For how many servants did he advance in haste…and with the change of his fancy ruined again; no man knowing for what offence! It was published in 1623 as part of the First Folio, the first authorized collection of Shakespeare's plays. 3. [45], Numerous miracles were credited to the dead king, including his raising the plague victim Alice Newnett from the dead and appearing to her as she was being stitched in her shroud. In all likelihood, his opponents had kept him alive up to this point rather than leave the Lancasters with a far more formidable leader in Henry's son, Edward. There is evidence that he had been a headstrong and unruly boy, but he later became concerned only with religious observances and the planning of his educational foundations (Eton College in 1440–41, King’s College, Cambridge, in 1441). They backed the claims of the rival House of York, first to the control of government, and then to the throne itself (from 1460), pointing to York's better descent from Edward III. [39], King Henry VI was originally buried in Chertsey Abbey; then, in 1484, his body was moved to St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, by Richard III. Henry was deposed on 29 March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Henry VI, Part 1 believed written in approximately 1588-1590. A volume was compiled of the miracles attributed to him at St George's Chapel, Windsor, where Richard III had reinterred him, and Henry VII began building a chapel at Westminster Abbey to house Henry VI's relics. After the Duke of Bedford died in 1435, the Duke of Gloucester claimed the Regency himself, but was contested in this by the other members of the Council. Henry VI, king of England from 1422 to 1461 and from 1470 to 1471, a pious and studious recluse whose incapacity for government was one of the causes of the Wars of the Roses. Starting in 1453, Henry had a series of mental breakdowns, and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York over control of the incapacitated King's government, and over the question of succession to the English throne. That Henry, sole possessor of my love, 1715 Is of a king become a banish'd man, And forced to live in Scotland a forlorn; While proud ambitious Edward Duke of York Usurps the regal title and the seat Of England's true-anointed lawful king. The king initially agreed, but Margaret intervened to prevent the arrest of Beaufort. In 1447, the king and queen summoned the duke of Gloucester to appear before parliament on the charge of treason. His duties were limited to keeping the peace and summoning Parliament. [38] Another contemporary source, Wakefield's Chronicle, gives the date of Henry's death as 23 May, on which date Richard is known to have been away from London. An English chronicle of the reigns of Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI written before the year 1471; with an appendix, containing the 18th and 19th years of Richard II and the Parliament at Bury St. Edmund's, 25th Henry VI and supplementary additions from the Cotton. The peace policy failed, leading to the murder of one of Henry's key advisers, William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, and the war recommenced, with France taking the upper hand; by 1453, Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent. Henry VI, Part 1 is the first in a sequence of four history plays (the others being Henry VI, Part 2 , Henry VI, Part 3 , and Richard III ) known collectively as the “first tetralogy,” treating the Wars of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York. During the Congress of Arras in 1435, the English put forth the idea of a union between Henry and a daughter of King Charles VII of France, but the Armagnacs refused even to contemplate the suggestion unless Henry renounced his claim to the French throne. Printed from the first quarto. Henry the Sixth, Part 3, is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed written in approximately 1590, and set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England. By July 1465, he was in hiding at Waddington Hall, in Waddington, Lancashire, the home of Sir Richard Tempest. York secretly leads a rebellion, his supporters proclaim him king, and Henry is forced to flee. [49], Although Henry VI's shrine was enormously popular as a pilgrimage destination during the early decades of the 16th century,[50] over time, with the lessened need to legitimise Tudor rule, his cult faded.[51]. Henry VI Part II is a history play about the struggle for power during the reign of a young English king. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Warwick soon overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Omissions? Summary Read a Plot Overview of the entire play or a scene by scene Summary and Analysis. Henry, who was by nature shy, pious, and averse to deceit and bloodshed, immediately allowed his court to be dominated by a few noble favourites who clashed on the matter of the French war when he assumed the reins of government in 1437. [44] Hymns to him still exist, and until the Reformation his hat was kept by his tomb at Windsor, where pilgrims would put it on to enlist Henry's aid against migraines. Henry VI, Part 1, often referred to as 1 Henry VI, is a history play by William Shakespeare—possibly in collaboration with Christopher Marlowe and Thomas Nashe—believed to have been written in 1591. A quarrel between Edward IV and Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, led Warwick to restore Henry to the throne in October 1470, and Edward fled abroad. [42] A number of Henry VI's miracles possessed a political dimension, such as his cure of a young girl afflicted with the King's evil, whose parents refused to bring her to the usurper, Richard III. Cousin of Exeter, frowns, words and threats Shall be the war that Henry means to use. Against the wishes of the nobles, King Henry marries the penniless Margaret who plots against him with her lover. York was named regent as protector of the realm in 1454. Home politics were dominated by the rivalries of a series of overpowerful ministers—Humphrey, duke of Gloucester; Henry, Cardinal Beaufort; and William de la Pole, duke of Suffolk. Riches are ready snares, [34], Queen Margaret, exiled in Scotland and later in France, was determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and her son, Edward of Westminster. At the urging of King Louis XI of France they formed a secret alliance with Margaret. Apparently printed from the first quarto, but with reference either to the f… [31] He was subsequently held captive in the Tower of London. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Henry-VI-king-of-England, The Home of the Royal Family - Biography of Henry VI, David Nashford's Royal Berkshire History - Biography of King Henry VI, Henry VI - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. As in all Shakespeare’s plays about English kings, this play is set in a mix of palaces and battlefields. After marrying his daughter Anne to Henry and Margaret's son, Warwick returned to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 3 October 1470; the term "readeption" is still sometimes used for this event. [14] An alliance with Armagnac would have helped to protect English Gascony from increasing French threats in the region, especially in the face of defections to the enemy by local English vassals,[15] and might have helped to wean some other French nobles to the English party. The Battle of Northampton. Henry agreed, especially when he heard reports of Margaret's stunning beauty, and sent Suffolk to negotiate with Charles, who consented to the marriage on condition that he would not have to provide the customary dowry and instead would receive the province of Maine from the English. See: Desmond Seward. Although York was killed at Wakefield (December 30, 1460), and Henry was recaptured by the Lancastrians at the second Battle of St. Albans (February 17, 1461), York’s heir was proclaimed king as Edward IV in London on March 4. Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. He spends most of his time in contemplation of the Bible and expressing his wish to be anyone other than a king. King Henry knights ten of his men including Thomas Stanley and the five year old grandson of the Duke of Buckingham.Both would be heavily involved in the demise of Richard III, … His ineffective reign saw the gradual loss of the English lands in France. How did John Blackman know King Henry VI? Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... United Kingdom: Henry VI (1422–61 and 1470–71). (Copy from the Bodleian Library.) Henry’s minority was never officially ended, but from 1437 he was considered old enough to rule for himself, and his personality became a vital factor. [24] Ultimately, Henry was forced to send him into exile, but Suffolk's ship was intercepted in the English Channel. Henry VI recovered from his insanity at around Christmas time in 1454. Henry VI, Part 2appeared in five editions before 1642. The court party was also strengthened by the announcement that the queen was pregnant. "The Wars of the Roses", and Charles Ross, "Wars of the Roses". However, eventually Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters: Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, and his own younger brother George, Duke of Clarence. Regional magnates and soldiers returning from France formed and maintained increasing numbers of private armed retainers, with whom they fought one another, terrorised their neighbours, paralysed the courts, and dominated the government. One of Henry V's surviving brothers, John, Duke of Bedford, was appointed senior regent of the realm and was in charge of the ongoing war in France. As the situation in France worsened, there was a related increase in political instability in England. He only takes an act of his own volition just before his death when he curses Richard of Gloucester just before he is murdered. Henry's place of death is unknown, though he was imprisoned within the Tower of London. During the first period of Edward IV's reign, Lancastrian resistance continued mainly under the leadership of Queen Margaret and the few nobles still loyal to her in the northern counties of England and Wales. Assumption of government and French policies, With the King's only remaining uncle dead, there were many, though no obvious, candidates to succeed Henry VI to the throne if he died childless. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months upon his father's death, and succeeded to the French throne on the death of his maternal grandfather, Charles VI, shortly afterwards. Updates? [30][page needed] In 1457, Henry created the Council of Wales and the Marches for his son Prince Edward. In 1447, this unpopularity took the form of a Commons campaign against William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, who was the most unpopular of all the king's entourage and widely seen as a traitor. [11] Henry's assumption of full royal powers occurred during the Great Bullion Famine and the beginning of the Great Slump in England. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Henry VI, Part II and Henry VI, Part III first performed. King Henry VI. Edited by John Silvester Davies. Having "lost his wits, his two kingdoms, and his only son",[2] Henry died in the Tower during the night of 21 May, possibly killed on the orders of King Edward. The difficulty is that the majority of plays written in the 1570s and 1580s have not survived and are known only from their titles. He was impeached by Parliament to a background that has been called "the baying for Suffolk's blood [by] a London mob",[23] to the extent that Suffolk admitted his alarm to Henry. … This quarto exists only as a fragment of four leaves, quire C. The manuscript from which this quarto was printed might have been either Shakespeare’s own working draft of the play, or a transcript prepared by a scribe. What Shakespearean event happened in 1592? Henry VI Part II, written around 1591 - 92, is part of Shakespeare’s trilogy centred on the Wars of the Roses. According to the Historie of the arrivall of Edward IV, an official chronicle favourable to Edward IV, Henry died of melancholy on hearing news of the Battle of Tewkesbury and his son's death. Updated May 09, 2018. Shakespeare's portrayal of Henry is notable in that it does not mention the King's madness. Spedizione gratuita per ordini superiori a 25 euro. Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. Henry VI was imprisoned in the Tower of London, where he was murdered on 21 May 1471. Her father was the mad Charles VI, who believed he was made out of … During Bedford's absence, the government of England was headed by Henry V's other surviving brother, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, who was appointed Lord Protector and Defender of the Realm. KING HENRY VI Ah, know you not the city favours them, And they have troops of soldiers at their beck? Shakespeare wrote a whole bunch of history plays. [12], Better prospects for England arose amidst a growing effort by French lords to resist the growing power of the French monarchy, a conflict which culminated in the Praguerie revolt of 1440. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months upon his father's death, and succeeded to the French throne on the death of his maternal grandfather, Charles VI, shortly afterwards. Corrections? The court party, meanwhile, raised their own similar-sized force in London. In 1452, the duke of York was persuaded to return from Ireland, claim his rightful place on the council and put an end to bad government. Quarto 0, [1598]. State is devoid of stay, In May 1420, he was recognised as Henricus, rex Angliae et haeres Franciae [King of England and Heir of France]. The manner of the prince's death is one of historical speculation. 1458, in an attempt to unite the warring factions, Henry staged The Love Day in London. After the Yorkists had captured Henry at Northampton (July 1460), it was agreed that Henry should remain king but recognize York, and not his own son Edward, as heir to the throne. These conditions were agreed in the Treaty of Tours in 1444, but the cession of Maine was kept secret from Parliament, as it was known that this would be hugely unpopular with the English populace. She had arrived with an established household, composed primarily not of Angevins, but of members of Henry's royal servants; this increase in the size of the royal household, and a concomitant increase on the birth of their son, Edward of Westminster, in 1453, led to proportionately greater expense but also to greater patronage opportunities at Court.[21]. It prepares the ground for one of his best-known and most controversial plays: the tragedy of King Richard III (Richard III of England). Pomps, imprompt; and fame, a flame; The play focuses on a murder plot, a rebellion and the … 2. The last, Henry VIII, was written in 1613, over twenty years later. Light hair had been found to be covered in blood, with damage to the skull, strongly suggesting that the king had indeed died due to violence. Charles VI, in turn, may have inherited a condition from his mother. However, by this time, years in hiding followed by years in captivity had taken their toll on Henry. The Duke of York was killed by Margaret's forces at the Battle of Wakefield on 30 December 1460, and Henry was rescued from imprisonment after the Second Battle of St Albans on 17 February 1461. [40], Henry's one lasting achievement was his fostering of education: he founded Eton College, King's College, Cambridge and All Souls College, Oxford. [1] Queen Margaret did not remain unpartisan, and took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Henry IV, Part 1appeared in 11 editions before 1642. Henry later gave his half-brothers earldoms. (Copy from the Bodleian Library.) For the plays by Shakespeare, see. After the death of King Henry V, England had lost momentum in the Hundred Years' War, whereas the House of Valois had gained ground beginning with Joan of Arc's military victories in the year 1429. He was defeated at the Battle of Towton on 29 March 1461 by the Duke of York's son, Edward, who then became King Edward IV. He is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henry II, in 1431). The queen was excluded completely, and Edmund Beaufort was detained in the Tower of London, while many of York's supporters spread rumours that Edward was not the king's son, but Beaufort's. Second quarto, 1600. Henry placed his hand between the rope and the man's windpipe, thus keeping him alive, after which he revived in the cart as it was taking him away for burial. This is considered to have been a politically-advisable move so as to not risk offending Elizabeth I whose family was descended from Henry's Lancastrian family. Pubblicato da … However, he was excluded from the court circle and sent to govern Ireland, while his opponents, the earls of Suffolk and Somerset, were promoted to dukes, a title at that time still normally reserved for immediate relatives of the monarch. There followed a violent struggle between the houses of Lancaster and York. Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name. He was the only child of Henry V (1386-1422) and Catherine of Valois (1401-1437). [25], In 1449, the Duke of Somerset, leading the campaign in France, reopened hostilities in Normandy (although he had previously been one of the main advocates for peace), but by the autumn he had been pushed back to Caen. Shakespeare’s Henry VI Part 1 is set during the reign of England and France’s King Henry VI (1431 – 1435). He found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Following his defeat in the Battle of Hexham on 15 May 1464, Henry found refuge, sheltered by Lancastrian supporters, at houses across the north of England. Somerset's duties were to 'tutor the young king as well as preserv[e] his health'. There is a similar ceremony at his resting place, St George's Chapel. Henry VI is a series of three history plays by William Shakespeare, set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England. She was prevented from playing a full role in her son's upbringing. Instead Henry is portrayed as a pious and peaceful man ill-suited to the crown. His cause was a popular one and he soon raised an army at Shrewsbury. Henry inherited the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453), in which his uncle Charles VII contested his claim to the French throne. For the period 1430–1432, Henry was also tutored by the physician John Somerset. A stand-off took place south of London, with York presenting a list of grievances and demands to the court circle, including the arrest of Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset. It is set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England. Or is it the opposite? Each year on the anniversary of Henry VI's death, the Provosts of Eton and King's lay white lilies and roses, the respective floral emblems of those colleges, on the spot in the Wakefield Tower at the Tower of London where the imprisoned Henry VI was, according to tradition, murdered as he knelt at prayer. He was gentle, naïve, chaste, prudish and … In the end, the rebellion achieved nothing, and London was retaken after a few days of disorder; but this was principally because of the efforts of its own residents rather than those of the army. In October 1452, an English advance in Aquitaine retook Bordeaux and was having some success, but by 1453 Bordeaux was lost again, leaving Calais as England's only remaining territory on the continent. By 1453, Somerset's influence had been restored, and York was again isolated. Although we cannot be certain when Shakespeare actually wrote the play, it is believed that this early history play was first performed in 1590–1591. Learn more about his life, relationships, and accomplishments in this article. Source 2. Queen Margaret had no tolerance for any sign of disloyalty toward her husband and kingdom, thus any suspicion of this was immediately brought to her attention. Henry was restored to the throne in 1470, but Edward retook power in 1471, killing Henry's only son and heir, Edward of Westminster, in battle and imprisoning Henry once again. Henry was the only child and heir of King Henry V. He was born on 6 December 1421 at Windsor Castle. Robyns was healed only after he went on a pilgrimage to the shrine of King Henry. Henry was defeated and captured at the Battle of Northampton on 10 July 1460. [18] The deal fell through due to problems in commissioning portraits of the Count's daughters[19] and the Count's imprisonment by Charles VII's men in 1443. Have they received the information first- or second-hand? The anti-Yorkist cult was encouraged by Henry VII of England as dynastic propaganda. (Copy from Folger Shakespeare Library.) And hasten to decay At any rate the rebellion showed that feelings of discontent were running high.[27]. On 21 October 1422, in accordance with the Treaty of Troyes of 1420, he became titular King of France upon his grandfather Charles VI's death. A return to power of Somerset in 1455 made war inevitable, and although he was killed at the first Battle of St. Albans (May 1455), Queen Margaret gradually undermined York’s ascendancy, and fighting was renewed in 1459. Henry was imprisoned in the Tower of London again, and when the royal party arrived in London, he was reported dead. In about 1441, the recently ransomed Charles, Duke of Orléans, in an attempt to force Charles VII to make peace with the English, suggested a marriage between Henry VI and a daughter of John IV, Count of Armagnac,[13] a powerful noble in southwestern France who was at odds with the Valois crown. and considered by the editor to be a version of the Chronicles of England. As Duke of Cornwall, Henry's arms were those of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points. Comparisons between the first quarto and its incomplete predecessor suggest that the former was printed with some … Thought to have been printed from a memorial reconstruction of the play. [4] Somerset remained within the royal household until early 1451 after the English House of Commons petitioned for his removal because of his 'dangerous and subversive influence over Henry VI'.[5]. [52], This article is about the English king. [46] He also intervened in the attempted hanging of a man who had been unjustly condemned to death, accused of stealing some sheep. 1. The young King came to favour a policy of peace in France and thus favoured the faction around Cardinal Beaufort and William de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, who thought likewise; the Duke of Gloucester and Richard, Duke of York, who argued for a continuation of the war, were ignored. As tensions between York and Lancaster build, the Duke of York gathers supporters for his claim to the throne. The text is a portion of a ms. chronicle probably written in the last half of the 15th cent. How many wives did he cut off and cast off, as his fancy and affection changed! Who meanth to remove the rock His early reign, when several people were ruling for him, saw the pinnacle of English power in France, but subsequent military, diplomatic, and economic problems had seriously endangered the English cause by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437. King Henry VI and his family the House of Lancaster fought against their enemies for many years. [36] It is widely suspected, however, that Edward IV, who was re-crowned the morning following Henry's death, had in fact ordered his murder.[e]. He continued a career of architectural patronage started by his father: King's College Chapel and Eton College Chapel and most of his other architectural commissions (such as his completion of his father's foundation of Syon Abbey) consisted of a late Gothic or Perpendicular-style church with a monastic or educational foundation attached. Henry V's uncle Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester (after 1426 also Cardinal), had an important place on the Council. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. John Blackman, written shortly after the death of Henry VI. The action of Henry VI moves backward and forwards between England and France. Henry VI of England (1421-1461) displayed qualities that would have done credit to a monk, but not to a Medieval King. This move was instigated by Gloucester's enemies, the earl of Suffolk, whom Margaret held in great esteem, and the aging Cardinal Beaufort and his nephew, Edmund Beaufort, Earl of Somerset. 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Official Chronicles and documents state that the deposed King died on the Council of Wales and the Marches his! 28 ] he was reconciled with Clarence and killed Warwick, and Charles,... She was kneeling at mass, a 1939 horror film loosely dramatising the rise to power of III. Henry means to use established a regency Council to govern until the King and queen the. Determine whether to revise the article civil war broke out in 1455, leading a! Informally regarded as a pious and peaceful man ill-suited to the shrine King... €¦ 1 Henry VI recovered from his insanity at around Christmas Day 1454, Henry! Named regent as protector of the first authorized collection of Shakespeare 's plays written for mother, the of! Agreed that York would become Henry 's successor, despite York being older was forced to flee encouraged Henry. Exile, but with reference either to the throne lasted less than six months 1471. Gain access to exclusive content but was soon captured at the battle.. 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